Hodges, Courtney Hicks, GEN

Deceased
 
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Last Rank
General
Last Service Branch
US
Last Primary MOS
00GC-Commanding General
Last MOS Group
General Officer
Primary Unit
1945-1949, First Army (1st Army)
Service Years
1906 - 1949

US

General



Eight Overseas Service Bars


 Last Photo   Personal Details 


Home State
Georgia
Georgia
Year of Birth
1887
 
This Military Service Page was created/owned by the Site Administrator to remember Hodges, Courtney Hicks, GEN USA(Ret).
 
Contact Info
Home Town
Perry, GA
Last Address
San Antonio, TX

Date of Passing
Jan 16, 1966
 
Location of Interment
Arlington National Cemetery - Arlington, Virginia
Wall/Plot Coordinates
Not Specified

 Official Badges 

Infantry Shoulder Cord Meritorious Unit Commendation 1944-1961 French Fourragere USA Central




 Unofficial Badges 






 Additional Information
Last Known Activity
 

This is to Certify that
The President of the United States of America
Takes Pride in Presenting

THE 
DISTINGUISHED SERVICE CROSS
to

HODGES, COURTNEY H.
Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army
6th Infantry Regiment, 5th Division, A.E.F.
Date of Action: November 2 - 4, 1918
Citation:
The Distinguished Service Cross is presented to Courtney H. Hodges, Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in action near Breulles, France, November 2 - 4, 1918. Lieutenant Colonel Hodges personally conducted a reconnaissance of the Meuse River, to determine the most advantageous location for a crossing, and for a bridge site. Having organized a storming party, he attacked the enemy not 100 paces distant, and, although failing, he managed to effect the crossing of the canal after 20 hours of ceaseless struggling. His fearlessness and courage were mainly responsible for the advance of his brigade to the heights east of the Meuse.


General Orders No. 3, W.D., 1919




Courtney Hicks Hodges (January 5, 1887 – January 16, 1966) was an American military officer, most prominent for his role in World War II, in which he commanded the U.S. First Army in Northwest Europe.

Hodges's father published a small-town newspaper in Perry, Georgia where he was born. He attended West Point but was forced to leave after a year, along with George S. Patton Jr., because of poor test scores ("found deficient" in mathematics).


In 1906, however, he entered the United States Army as a Private, and became a commissioned officer three years later. He served with
George Marshall in the Philippines and Patton with the Punitive Expedition into Mexico 1916 - 1917.


Distinguished Marksman 1908 as Courtney Hicks Hodges SGT USA

 

He earned the Distinguished Service Cross during the closing days of World War I while leading an attack across the Marne River. Saw action with the 6th Infantry, AEF in the St. Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne offensives.


After the war he was so well thought of that he became an instructor at West Point, even though he had not graduated from that institution.


Graduated from the Command and General Staff School in 1925.  Member of the Infantry Board at Fort Benning 1929 - 1933. Graduated from the Army War College in 1934.

 

In 1938, he became an Assistant Commandant of the Infantry School, Brigadier General in May 1940.  Major General in May 1941 as Chief of Infantry until March 1942.
 

He then Commanded X Corps, which he received in 1942.  In 1943, while commanding both X Corps and then the US Third Army, he was sent to Britain, where he served under General Omar Bradley. During Operation Overlord, he was subordinate to Bradley as Deputy Commander of the U.S. First Army, but in August 1944, he succeeded Bradley, as the latter went to command 12th Army Group and took command of the Army.
 

Hodges's troops were the first to reach Paris, France, and he led them through Germany. His troops fought the Battle of Hurtgen Forest and had a major role in the Ardennes Offensive, otherwise known as the Battle of the Bulge. The First Army was the first unit to cross the Rhine River, by using the still standing Ludendorff bridge at Remagen, and to meet with the Soviet Red Army near Torgau, on the river Elbe.


Hodges was promoted to General on April 15, 1945 making him the first man to rise to full General from enlisted private.



In May 1945, after the German surrender, Hodges and his troops were ordered to prepare for the invasion of Japan; that became unnecessary, however, when the atomic bomb caused Japan's surrender later that year.


Hodges was present at the surrenders of both Germany and Japan.

 

After World War II, he served First Army Commandant stationed at Governors Island, New York (later San Antonio, TX) until his retirement in March 1949. Hodges died in San Antonio, Texas in 1966. His extreme personal modesty prevented him from receiving the credit due his efforts.

 

   
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WWII - Asiatic-Pacific Theater/Surrender of Japan
Start Year
1945
End Year
1945

Description
The surrender of the Empire of Japan on September 2, 1945, brought the hostilities of World War II to a close. By the end of July 1945, the Imperial Japanese Navy was incapable of conducting major operations and an Allied invasion of Japan was imminent. While publicly stating their intent to fight on to the bitter end, Japan's leaders, (the Supreme Council for the Direction of the War, also known as the "Big Six"), were privately making entreaties to the neutral Soviet Union to mediate peace on terms more favorable to the Japanese. Meanwhile, the Soviets were preparing to attack Japanese forces in Manchuria and Korea in fulfillment of promises they had secretly made to the United States and the United Kingdom at the Tehran and Yalta Conferences.

On August 6, 1945, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Late in the evening of August 8, 1945, in accordance with the Yalta agreements, but in violation of the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, and soon after midnight on August 9, 1945, the Soviet Union invaded the Imperial Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. Later that same day, the United States dropped a second atomic bomb, this time on the Japanese city of Nagasaki. The combined shock of these events caused Emperor Hirohito to intervene and order the Supreme Council for the Direction of the War to accept the terms the Allies had set down in the Potsdam Declaration for ending the war. After several more days of behind-the-scenes negotiations and a failed coup d'état, Emperor Hirohito gave a recorded radio address across the Empire on August 15. In the radio address, called the Gyokuon-huis ("Jewel Voice Broadcast"), he announced the surrender of Japan to the Allies.

On August 28, the occupation of Japan by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers began. The surrender ceremony was held on September 2, aboard the United States Navy battleship USS Missouri (BB-63), at which officials from the Japanese government signed the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, thereby ending the hostilities. Allied civilians and military personnel alike celebrated V-J Day, the end of the war; however, some isolated soldiers and personnel from Imperial Japan's far-flung forces throughout Asia and the Pacific islands refused to surrender for months and years afterwards, some even refusing into the 1970s. The role of the atomic bombings in Japan's surrender, and the ethics of the two attacks, is still debated. The state of war between Japan and the Allies formally ended when the Treaty of San Francisco came into force on April 28, 1952. Four more years passed before Japan and the Soviet Union signed the Soviet–Japanese Joint Declaration of 1956, which formally brought an end to their state of war.
   
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From Year
1945
To Year
1945
 
Last Updated:
Aug 13, 2010
   
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  94 Also There at This Battle:
 
  • Healy, Michael D., MG, (1945-1981)
  • LaVictor, Alan
  • Lawn, John
  • Miller, Richard J., PFC, (1943-1945)
  • Miller, Richard, PFC, (1943-1946)
  • Ross, Charles G., LTC, (1942-1972)
  • Ruvolo, Peter PFC, (1944-1946)
  • Singlaub, John Kirk, MG, (1943-1978)
  • Soma, Nils, T/5, (1943-1945)
  • Sturgill, Dale Franklin, T/3, (1943-1946)
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