HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS COMPANY
192d MILITARY POLICE BATTALION
(FAIRFIELD COUNTY REGIMENT)
Organized 26 June 1672 in the Connecticut Militia from existing train bands as the Fairfield Count
... Morey Regiment
Expanded 11 October 1739 to form the 4th and 9th Regiments
Expanded 1 November 1771 to form the 4th, 9th, and 16th Regiments
(Elements called into Continental Army service at various times during the Revolutionary War)
Expanded 12 October 1786 to form the 4th, 9th, 16th, and 28th Regiments
Expanded 5 November 1792 to form the 4th, 9th, 16th, 28th, and 34th Regiments
4th, 9th, 16th, 28th, and 34th Regiments consolidated 25 June 1847 and reorganized in the Connecticut Volunteer Militia as the 8th Regiment, to consist of companies from Fairfield County
(While remaining in state service during the Civil War, the 8th Regiment furnished elements of the 1st, 6th, 10th, 17th, and 23d Connecticut Volunteer Infantry Regiments and the 2d Connecticut Volunteer Light Battery in Federal service)
(Connecticut Volunteer Militia redesignated 6 July 1865 as the Connecticut National Guard)
Reorganized and redesignated 1 August 1871 as the 4th Regiment
Consolidated 5 October 1903 with the 3d Regiment (see ANNEX 1) and consolidated unit reorganized and redesignated as the 3d Infantry Regiment
Converted, reorganized, and redesignated 14 December 1907 in the Connecticut National Guard as the Coast Artillery Corps
Called into Federal service 3 April and 25 July 1917 at home stations; drafted into Federal service 5 August 1917
Reorganized and redesignated 31 August 1917 as the 26th through 38th Companies, Coast Defenses of Long Island Sound
(26th, 27th, 29th, 37th, and 38th Companies, Coast Defenses of Long Island Sound, reorganized and redesignated 20 December 1917 as the Supply Company and Batteries F, E, and B, 56th Artillery [Coast Artillery Corps], respectively; demobilized in January 1919 at Fort Schuyler, New York)
(28th, 30th, 31st, 32d, 33d, 34th, 35th, and 36th Companies, Coast Defenses of Long Island Sound, redesignated 13 April 1918 as the 3d, 5th, 6th, 7th, 19th 13th, 14th, and 16th Companies, Coast Defenses of Long Island Sound, respectively; demobilized 16 December 1918 at Forts Terry, Michie, and H.G. Wright, New York)
Former Coast Artillery Corps reorganized 24 March 1921 in the Connecticut National Guard as the 1st Coast Artillery; Headquarters Federally recognized 2 April 1921 at New London
Redesignated 23 May 1921 as the 192d Artillery (Coast Artillery Corps)
Converted, reorganized, and redesignated 3 November 1921 as the 192d Field Artillery, and assigned to the 43d Division (later redesignated as the 43d Infantry Divisioin)
Inducted into Federal service 24 February 1941 at home stations
Regiment broken up 19 February 1942 and its elements reorganized and redesignated as follows:
(1st Battalion as the 2d Battalion, 203d Field Artillery ï¿½?? hereafter separate lineage)
2d Battalion as the 192d Field Artillery Battalion, an element of the 43d Infantry Division
192d Field Artillery Battalion inactivated 22 October 1945 at Camp Stoneman, California
Consolidated 18 October 1946 with Headquarters, 192d Field Artillery (reconstituted 25 August 1945 in the Connecticut National Guard), and consolidated unit designated as the 192d Field Artillery Battalion; concurrently reorganized and Federally recognized in southwestern Connecticut with Headquarters at Stamford
Ordered into active Federal service 5 September 1950 at home stations
(192d Field Artillery Battalion [NGUS] organized and Federally recognized 20 October 1952 in southwestern Connecticut with Headquarters at Stamford)
Released from active Federal service 15 June 1954 and reverted to state control; Federal recognition concurrently withdrawn from the 192d Field Artillery Battalion (NGUS)
Consolidated 1 May 1959 with the 211th Missile Battalion (see ANNEX 2), the 283d Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion (organized and FR?? 13 December 1922 at Bridgeport), and the 201st Antiaircraft Artillery Detachment (organized and Federally recognized 26 June 1951 at Bridgeport), and consolidated unit reorganized and redesignated as the 242d Artillery, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System, to consist of the 1st Missile Battalion, 2d Howitzer Battalion, an element of the 43d Infantry Division, the 3d Gun Battalion, and the 4th Detachment
Reorganized 1 July 1961 to consist of the 1st Missile Battalion, the 2d Howitzer Battalion, an element of the 43d Infantry Division, and the 4th Detachment (3d Gun Battalion [formerly the 283d Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion] concurrently converted, reorganized and redesignated as the 242d Engineer Battalion ï¿½?? hereafter separate lineage)
Consolidated 1 May 1963 with the 192 Artillery (see ANNEX 3) and consolidated unit designated as the 192d Artillery, to consist of the 1st Missile Battalion and the 2d Howitzer Battalion
Reorganized 1 December 1964 to consist of the 1st Missile Battalion, the 2d Howitzer Battalion, and Battery F
Reorganized 1 January 1966 to consist of the 1st Battalion, the 2d Howitzer Battalion, and Battery F
Reorganized 16 December 1967 to consist of the 1st Battalion and the 2d Battalion, an element of the 26th Infantry Division
Reorganized 15 May 1971 to consist of the 2d Battalion, an element of the 26th Infantry Division
Redesignated 1 March 1972 as the 92d Field Artillery
Withdrawn 1 June 1989 from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System
Federal recognition withdrawn 1 September 1993
Reconstituted 1 October 1997 in the Connecticut Army National Guard as the 192d Field Artillery, a parent regiment under the United States Army Regimental System, to consist of the 2d Battalion, an element of the 29th Infantry Division, with Headquarters at Westbrook
Converted, reorganized, and redesignated 1 September 2003 as Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 192d Chemical Battalion; location concurrently changed to New Haven
Consolidated 1 September 2008 with the 134th Military Police Company (organized and Federally recognized 5 November 2007 at Norwich), and consolidated unit converted, reorganized, and redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 192d Military Police Battalion
Ordered into active Federal service 27 May 2009 at New Haven; released from active Federal service 30 June 2010 and reverted to state control
Location changed 15 July 2010 to Niantic
Ordered into active Federal service 12 March 2015 at Niantic; released from active Federal service 28 January 2016 and reverted to state control
Organized 26 June 1672 in the Connecticut Militia from existing train bands as the New London County Regiment
Expanded 11 October 1739 to form the 3d and 8th Regiments
Expanded 4 November 1774 to form the 3d, 8th, and 20th Regiments
(Elements called into Continental Army service at various times during the Revolutionary War)
Expanded 5 June 1790 to form the 3d, 8th, and 30th Regiments
Expanded 5 November 1792 to form the 3d, 8th, 20th, 30th, and 33d Regiments
3d, 8th, 20th, 30th, and 33d Regiments consolidated and reorganized 25 June 1847 in the Connecticut Volunteer Militia as the 3d Regiment, to consist of companies from New London County
(While remaining in state service during the Civil War, the 3d Regiment furnished elements of the 2d, 3d, 13th, and 26th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry Regiments in Federal service)
(Connecticut Volunteer Militia redesignated 6 July 1865 as the Connecticut National Guard)
Mustered into Federal service 22 June 1898 at Niantic as the 3d Connecticut Volunteer Infantry; mustered out of Federal service 20 March 1899 at Savannah, Georgia, and reverted to state control
Organized and Federally recognized 5 September 1940 in the Connecticut National Guard in south-central Connecticut as the 3d Battalion, 242d Coast Artillery, with Headquarters at Milford
Inducted into Federal service 16 September 1940 at home stations
Redesignated 13 September 1943 as the 2d Battalion, 23d Coast Artillery
Inactivated 10 April 1944 at Camp Forrest, Tennessee
Disbanded 25 June 1944
Reconstituted 25 August 1945 in the Connecticut National Guard as the 2d Battalion, 23d Coast Artillery
Consolidated 6 January 1947 with the 211th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion (see ANNEX 4) and consolidated unit designated as the 211th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion; concurrently reorganized and Federally recognized in south-central Connecticut with Headquarters at Bridgeport
Reorganized and redesignated 25 June 1951 as the 211th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion
Reorganized and redesignated 1 October 1953 as the 211th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion
Reorganized and redesignated 1 October 1958 as the 211th Missile Battalion
Organized 13 August 1942 in the Connecticut National Guard while in Federal service n Australia as the 3d Battalion, 208th Coast Artillery
Reorganized and redesignated 15 May 1943 as the 238th Antiaircraft Artillery Searchlight Battalion
Inactivated 21 April 1945 in the Philippines
Reorganized and Federally recognized 11 February 1948 in the Connecticut Army National Guard in southeastern Connecticut as the 238th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion, with Headquarters at New London
Ordered into active Federal service 14 August 1950 at home stations; released from active Federal service 13 June 1952 and reverted to state control
Reorganized and redesignated 1 October 1953 as the 238th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion
Reorganized and redesignated 1 May 1959 as the 192d Artillery, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System, to consist of the 1st Missile Battalion and the 2d Gun Battalion
Reorganized 1 July 1961 to consist of the 1st Missile Battalion
Constituted 10 August 1940 in the Connecticut National Guard as the 2d Battalion, 208th Coast Artillery
Organized and Federally recognized 1 September 1940 in south-central Connecticut with Headquarters at New Haven
Inducted into Federal service 6 January 1941 at home stations
Reorganized and redesignated 15 May 1943 as the 211th Coast Artillery Battalion
Reorganized and redesignated 15 June 1944 as the 211th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion
Inactivated 24 December 1945 at Camp Anza, California
HOME STATION: Niantic Hide
The Meritorious Unit Commendation is awarded to units for exceptionally meritorious conduct in performance of outstanding services for at least six continuous months during a period of military operat
... Moreions against an armed enemy on or after January 1, 1944. Hide
During 2008 and 2009, all non-U.S. foreign forces withdrew from Iraq. Withdrawal of all non-U.S. forces was complete by 31 July 2009. As of 1 January 2009, the Iraqi government became fully responsibl
... Moree, through its security ministries, for maintaining and providing security and rule of law for its populace. Furthermore, as of 28 June 2009, no foreign forces were stationed within any of Iraq's major cities. The United States decided after negotiations to cease combat operations, that is, patrolling, serving arrest warrants, route clearance, etc., within Iraq by 1 September 2010, and transition to a pure advise, train and assist role. The changing mission entailed major troop reductions; from 115,000 on 15 December 2009, to 50,000 by 1 September 2010, and to zero by 31 December 2011.
As a result of the evolution of Operation Iraqi Freedom, three major commands (Multi-National Force – Iraq, Multi-National Corps – Iraq and Multi-National Security Transition Command – Iraq) were merged on 1 January 2010. The streamlining reduced the total number of staff positions by 41%, and serves the new advise, train and assist role of the American forces under the U.S.–Iraq Strategic Framework Agreement. The reduced number of staff positions decreased the personnel requirements on the United States armed forces. This also meant that further space was created for the reconstitution of the U.S. military after the end of significant combat operations. (This reconstitution may include, for example, longer leave for many personnel, enhanced space for psychological counselling, equipment repair and maintenance, transport of enormous amounts of equipment, supplies, and materiel south to Kuwait and onward, reconsideration of requirements, etc.).
The new USF–I was claimed to be organized into three divisions, which as of January 2010 were actually four. United States Division – North takes over from the former MND–N, United States Division – Center takes over from United States Force – West and MND–Baghdad, amalgamated on 23 January 2010, and United States Division – South, takes over from the old MND–South. In December 2009/January 2010 when the transition occurred, the 34th Infantry Division was providing the headquarters of MND/USD South. On 3 February 2010, the 1st Infantry Division took command of USD–South (covering nine Governorates of Iraq, including Wasit Governorate and Babil Governorate) from the 34th Infantry Division. A number of Advise and Assist (A&A) Brigades were created to carry out the Advise and Assist mission. Advise and Assist brigades were 'standard combat brigades with a complement of forty-eight extra majors and colonels to serve as advisers to Iraqi troops.'
MNSTC–I became U.S. Forces – Iraq, Advising and Training, which was under a major general, double-hatted as Commander, NATO Training Mission – Iraq (NTM–I).
1 January 2009 – The U.S.–Iraq Status of Forces Agreement went into effect, and gave the Government of Iraq de jure responsibility of maintaining and providing security for all of its people. Approximately 150,000 foreign troops in Iraq.
28 June 2009 – Foreign forces were no longer stationed within any of Iraq's major cities. Proclaimed as a national holiday by Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki.
31 July 2009 – The last large groups of non-U.S. foreign forces completed their withdrawal from Iraq.
1 January 2010 – The major commands Multi-National Force – Iraq, Multi-National Corps – Iraq and Multi-National Security Transition Command – Iraq merged into the unified command United States Forces – Iraq, reducing the total number of staff positions by 41%. Approximately 112,000 U.S. troops in Iraq.
7 March 2010 – Iraq held parliamentary elections, its second under its democratic constitution, and is seen as an important milestone for the young Iraqi political system; this leaves approximately 96,000 U.S. troops in Iraq.
1 September 2010 – American forces ceased all combat operations, i.e. patrolling, serving arrest warrants, route clearance, etc., and transitioned to a pure advise, train and assist role. Operation Iraqi Freedom is officially concluded Hide
The Presidential Unit Citation may be awarded to units of the Armed Forces of the United States and cobelligerent nations for extraordinary heroism in action against an armed enemy occurring on or aft
... Moreer December 7, 1941. Hide
The Philippine Presidential Unit Citation is a unit decoration of the Republic of the Philippines. It has been awarded to certain units of the United States military for actions both during and subseq
... Moreuent to the Second World War. Hide
(Leyte Campaign 17 October 1944 to 1 July 1945) On 17 October 1944, after preparatory bombardment, the invasion of the Philippines got under way with the seizure of islands guarding Leyte Gulf. The la
... Morending on Leyte itself on 20 October was strongly contested by Japanese forces on land and at sea. Organized resistance on the island did not end until after Christmas, and mopping up operations continued for a long time. Meanwhile, at the end of October, the neighboring island of Samar was occupied with little difficulty. Hide
(Luzon Campaign 15 December 1944 to 4 July 1945) After Leyte came Mindoro, which was invaded on 15 December 1944, an air strip being obtained to provide a base for operations during the invasion on Lu
... Morezon. American troops landed on the shores of Lingayen Gulf on g January 1945 and pushed to Manila, which the Japanese defended vigorously until 24 February. Rather than meet the Americans in a decisive battle, the Japanese decided to fight delaying actions in numerous places. Organized resistance ended in southern Luzon in April and in central and northern Luzon in June. Hide
(Northern Solomons Campaign 22 February 1943 to 21 November 1944) After the conquest of Guadalcanal, Halsey’s forces, supported by Thirteenth Air Force, began a campaign to capture Japanese stro
... Morengholds in the Northern Solomons. In February 1943 American forces landed in the Russell Islands to obtain an air strip. Air bases at Munda (New Georgia) and on Kolombangara Island were attacked as the Allies fought to gain superiority in the air. American troops landed on Rendova and on New Georgia at the end of June. The air base at Munda was taken in August, and the base on Kolombangara was neutralized. Landings were made in the Treasury Islands in October. Allied air power struck the great Japanese naval and air bases at Rabaul on New Britain to support the assault on Bougainville, which began on I November 1943. Enemy garrisons on Bougainville were contained, and other Japanese forces in the Northern Solomons were isolated. Although the enemy continued to resist, American air and naval power dominated the Solomons. Hide
By the close of 1943, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand had stopped the Japanese juggernaut in the Pacific. To put the Japanese on the defensive, within the framework of the global strateg
... Morey adopted by American and British leaders, the Allies initiated offensive operations along two mutually supporting lines of advance. Admiral Chester Nimitz, who commanded operations in the Central Pacific, invaded the Gilbert Islands in the Allied drive toward Japan, while General Douglas MacArthur, commander of Allied forces in the Southwest Pacific Area, initiated a series of amphibious assault operations along the New Guinea coast. These operations were the first steps in his drive to return to the Philippines, a pledge he had made when he left the islands in 1942.
Before MacArthur could begin operations against the Philippines, he needed to capture the Bismarck Archipelago, a group of islands off the New Guinea coast. Continued enemy control of the region would otherwise jeopardize his campaign. The struggle for these islands-New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralties, and several smaller islands-was officially designated as the Bismarck Archipelago Campaign.
One of the most important Allied goals in the Pacific was the reduction of the formidable Japanese bastion at Rabaul on the northeastern end of New Britain. With its ample harbor, multiple airfields, and natural defenses, Rabaul provided a sanctuary from which the Japanese could resupply their forces in the Solomons, launch an assault on Australia, or threaten the vital supply lines linking Australia and the United States. Its reduction, code-named CARTWHEEL, had been approved by the U.S. and British Combined Chiefs of Staff as a primary objective in 1942 and was reconfirmed as a priority objective at the Casablanca Conference in 1943. But despite Rabaul's importance, the Allies hesitated to attack the fortress directly. Its land defenses made such an operation too costly. Within the broad confines of Operation CARTWHEEL, the Allies thus decided to isolate and gradually to weaken Rabaul through attrition and starvation. The Bismarck Archipelago Campaign would then deliver the final blow to the Japanese stronghold.
Although the reduction of Rabaul was an important goal, MacArthur was also interested in obtaining bases to support his drive toward the Philippines. All the military services, and especially the Allied navies, required logistical bases to resupply their forces,
repair their equipment, treat their wounded, and support their fighting elements. The Admiralty Islands, within the Bismarck Archipelago, contained an excellent harbor that could fulfill those needs.
Like much of the southern Pacific, the Bismarck Archipelago consisted of volcanic islands with steep mountains, dense jungles, and malaria-breeding swamps. Temperatures were hot, softened only by torrential rains and often dense cloud cover. Governed by Australia before the war, the population consisted almost exclusively of native islanders. A few coconut plantations and missionary settlements reflected inroads of western civilization, but for the most part the islands remained primitive.
The Japanese Eighth Army headquarters directed operations in the archipelago. From Rabaul, it controlled all Japanese Army forces in the Solomons, New Guinea, and the Bismarcks. By late 1943, following the series of defeats which had begun in Papua and Guadalcanal and continued through the battles for North-East New Guinea and the Solomons, the Japanese adopted a posture of strategic defense. Constant reinforcements brought the strength of the Rabaul garrison, the southeast anchor of their defensive perimeter, to over 90,000 men by February 1944, and additional units defended the outlying islands.
On the Allied side, General MacArthur's Southwest Pacific Area included Australia, the Netherlands East Indies from Java eastward, the Philippines, the Bismarck Archipelago, and New Guinea. As commander in chief of the region, MacArthur had operational control of army, navy, marine, and air force components from contributing Allied nations. For the Bismarck Archipelago Campaign, he drew most of his ground forces from Lt. Gen. Walter Krueger's U.S. Sixth Army. Lt. Gen. George Kenney commanded the Allied air forces, composed of the U.S. Fifth Air Force and elements from the Royal Australian Air Force. MacArthur's naval element, commanded by Vice Adm. Thomas Kinkaid, consisted primarily of vessels from the U.S. Seventh Fleet, augmented by ships from British Commonwealth nations.
MacArthur's area of responsibility was one of three major Allied theaters in the Pacific. To his north and east was a largely maritime theater, the Pacific Ocean Areas, under the command of Admiral Nimitz. To his east, Admiral William (Bull) Halsey commanded the South Pacific Area, a subtheater under Nimitz. Having successfully liberated the Solomon Islands from Guadalcanal to Bougainville, Halsey now threatened Rabaul from the east and south. During the Bismarck Archipelago Campaign, Halsey would respond to "strategic direction" from MacArthur but would continue to report to Nimitz.
(New Guinea Campaign 24 January 1943 to 31 December 1944) After the loss of Buna and Gona in New Guinea, the Japanese fell back on their stronghold at Lae. Their attempt to reinforce Lae by sea in Mar
... Morech 1943 met with disaster when American and Australian planes sank most of the convoy in the Battle of the Bismarck Sea. Salamaua and Lae then became the objectives for an Allied advance along the northern coast of New Guinea. Fifth Air Force bombers attacked airfields at Wewak, 300 miles west of Lae, to neutralize them. The Allies dropped paratroops at Nadzab, just beyond Lae. Enemy resistance at Salamaua broke on 14 September 1943; Lae fell two days later. In the months that followed, MacArthur’s forces pushed westward, capturing some Japanese strongholds and bypassing others. After taking Hollandia in April 1944, the Allies attacked islands off the northern coast of New Guinea, taking Wakde and Biak in May, Owi in June, and Noemfoor in July. Sansapor on New Guinea also was gained in July. Aerial attacks on the Philippines began in August, and Morotai was seized in October to provide air bases for the invasion of the Philippines. Allied planes also bombed the oil center at Balikpapan and other targets in Borneo and Celebes. Hide
(Papua Campaign 23 July 1942 to 23 January 1943) In another effort to take Port Moresby the Japanese landed troops at Buna, Gona, and Sanananda in July 1942. At first the Allies could offer only feebl
... Moree resistance to the enemy forces that pushed southward through Papua, but the Allies were building up their strength in Australia. By mid September Fifth Air Force had superiority in the air over New Guinea, and the Japanese drive had been stopped. The Allies then began to push the enemy back, with Fifth Air Force ferrying supplies and reinforcements to the troops fighting in the jungle. Buna was taken on 2 January 1943, and enemy resistance at Sanananda ended three weeks later. Hide
(Guadalcanal Campaign 7 August 1942 to 21 February 1943) On 7 August 1942 the first stage of the offensive began with landings by a Marine division on Guadalcanal and nearby islands. The Japanese reac
... Moreted vigorously. They inflicted a serious defeat on Ghormley's naval forces in the Battle of Savo Island (8 August 1942), landed large numbers of reinforcements on Guadalcanal, and ultimately lost strong ground, air and naval forces in a desperate effort to hold Guadalcanal. Six major naval engagements were fought off the island. Air battles raged almost daily until the end of October 1942. On shore the issue was in doubt for almost three months. Before the island was finally secured in February 1943, the United States had committed two Marine divisions, two Army divisions, and an additional Army regiment to the fight. Late in February 1943 an Army division was unopposed in taking the Russell Islands, 35 miles northwest of Guadalcanal. The Allies thus firmly established themselves in the Solomons. Hide
(East Indies Campaign 1 January to 22 July 1942) On 7 December 1941 Japan turned its war on the Asian mainland south and eastward into the Pacifc. Attacks within hours on the Malay Peninsula, Hong Kon
... Moreg, Hawaii, Wake, Guam, and the Philippines not only shocked Allied governments, who believed Japanese envoys had been negotiating in good faith in Washington, but also caught them poorly prepared for war along the Asian rimlands. By the end of the day a sizable Japanese amphibious force had established itself on the
Malay Peninsula; the backbone of the U.S. Pacific Fleet lay twisted and burning in the mud of Pearl Harbor; hundreds of Western aircraft sprawled crumpled on airfields and hillsides across the Central and South Pacific; and neither the British Eastern Fleet nor Royal Netherlands Navy units in the Pacifc could steam safely through the Indian Ocean, around Malaya, or in the East Indies. It was imperative that the Western Powers somehow stop the Japanese southward advance, which now threatened to drive a wedge between the British in the Indian Ocean and the Americans in the Pacifc, to seize the East
Indies with its valuable natural resources, and to isolate Australia from both the United States and the British Commonwealth. Hide
Champagne-Marne, 15 - 18 July 1918. In the four great offensives from 21 March to 13 June 1918 the Germans gained considerable ground, but failed to achieve a decisive advantage at any point on the fr
... Moreont. Furthermore, success was bought at a price in manpower and material which they could ill afford. Their more then 600,000 casualties were irreplaceable, whereas the Allied loss of some 800,000 men was soon more than compensated for by new American units arriving at the front in ever-mounting numbers. By July 1918 Allied troops outnumbered German on the Western Front. Other factors also contributed to the decline of German morale, notably the pinch of the blockade and the effectiveness of the Allied propaganda, which was distributed widely by air at the front and in German cities behind the lines. But Ludendorff refused to consider peace negotiations, and planned two more offensives for July which he hoped would bring victory. The first of the new drives was designed to capture Rheims, to make more secure the supply of the Merge salient, and to draw in Allied reserves. The second and larger offensive, destined never to be launched, would strike once again at the British in Flanders.
When the two-pronged German assault on either side of Rheims began on 15 July the Allies were prepared for it. Plans for the attack had leaked out of Berlin, and Allied airplanes had detected the unusual activity behind the enemy front. Foch had time to draw up reserves, and Petain, the French commander, skillfully deployed his troops in defense-in-depth tactics. Consequently the German drive east of Rheims fell far short of its objective. The attack west of the city succeeded in pushing across the Marne near Chateau-Thierry, but was checked there by French and American units. Among the A.E.F. units involved in this action were the 3d, 26th, 28th, and 42d Divisions, the 369th Infantry, and supporting elements (in all about 85,000 Americans). It was here that the 38th Infantry of the 3d Division gained its motto, "Rock of the Marne."
By 17 July the Champagne-Marne offensive had petered out and the initiative passed to the Allies. The German people had built up great hopes for the success of this Friedensturm (peace offensive); its failure was a tremendous psychological blow to the whole nation.
Marne near Chateau-Thierry. Among the A.E.F. units involved were the 3d, 26th, 28th, and 42d Divisions, and the 369th Infantry(in all about 85,000 Americans). It was here that the 38th Infantry of the 3d Division gained its motto, "Rock of the Marne. Hide
Oise-Aisne, 18 August - 11 November 1918. In mid-August the French started a series of drives on their front, which extended about 90 miles from Reims westward through Soissons to Ribecourt on the Ois
... Moree River. These operations continued into late September, when they merged into Foch's great final offensive of October-November. Five French armies (from right to left the Fifth, Sixth, Tenth, Third, and First) advanced abreast, in coordination with the British on the Somme to the north and the Americans to the east.
The American 32d Division was a part of the French Tenth Army, which spearheaded the penetration of the enemy's main line on 22 August. The 32d was instrumental in the capture of Juvigny on 30 August, which secured tactically important high ground for the Allies. The German front was so badly breached that the enemy was compelled to abandon the Vesle River line. On 9 September the 32d Division was ordered east to join the American First Army.
The American III Corps (28th and 77th Divisions) was a part of the French Sixth Army east of Soissons, which held in late August the western part of the Vesle River sector extending from Braine to Courlandon. As the Germans retired from the Vesle northward to the Aisne valley in early September, the III Corps took part in the aggressive pursuit operations. Its two divisions carried out successful local attacks, but failed to break into the German line before they were relieved to join the American First Army-the 28th on 7-8 September and the 77th on 14-16 September.
No American divisions participated in the subsequent Oise-Aisne operations, which by 11 November had carried the French armies to the Belgian border. A total of about 85,000 Americans took part in the Oise-Aisne Campaign. Hide
Meuse-Argonne, 26 September - 11 November 1918. At the end of August Marshal Foch had submitted plane to the national commanders for a final offensive along the entire Western Front, with the objectiv
... Moree of driving the enemy out of France before winter and ending the war in the spring of 1919. The basis for his optimism was the success of Allied attacks all along the front in August. Furthermore, he pointed out, the Allies already had active operations in progress between the Moselle and Meuse, the Oise and Aisne, and on the Somme and Lys Rivers. Foch acknowledged that the Germans could stave off immediate defeat by an orderly evacuation combined with destruction of materiel and communications. Therefore the overall aim of the fall offensive would be to prevent a step-by-step enemy retirement. As Foch anticipated, the Germans eventually contributed to the success of his strategy. Their High Command could not bring itself to sacrifice the huge stores collected behind the front lines, and so delayed the withdrawal of its armies.
Foch's great offensive, planned to begin in the last week of September, called for a gigantic pincers movement with the objective of capturing Aulnoye and Mézières, the two key junctions in the lateral rail system behind the German front. Lose of either of these junctions would hamper seriously the German withdrawal. Despite grumbling from the English that they lacked the necessary manpower, a chiefly British army was assigned the teak of driving toward Aulnoye. The A.E.F. was designated for the southern arm of the pincers, the thrust on Mézières. Simultaneously the Belgian-French-British army group in Flanders would drive toward Ghent, and the French armies in the Oise-Aisne region would exert pressure all along their front to lend support to the pincers attack.
Pershing decided to strike his heaviest blow in a zone about 20 miles wide between the Heights of the Meuse on the east and the western edge of the high, rough, and densely wooded Argonne Forest. This is difficult terrain, broken by a central north-south ridge that dominates the valleys of the Meuse and Aire Rivers. Three heavily fortified places-Montfaucon, Cunel, and Barricourt-as well as numerous strong points barred the way to penetration of the elaborate German defenses in depth that extended behind the entire front. This fortified system consisted of three main defense lines backed up by a fourth line less well-constructed. Pershing hoped to launch an attack with enough momentum to drive through these lines into the open area beyond, where his troops could then strike at the exposed German flanks and, in a coordinated drive with the French Fourth Army coming up on the left, could cut the Sedan- Mézières railroad.
The task of assembling troops in the concentration area between Verdun and the Argonne was complicated by the fact that many American unite were currently engaged in the St. Mihiel battle. Some 600,000 Americans had to be moved into the Argonne sector while 220,000 French moved out. Responsibility for solving this tricky logistical problem fell to Col. George C. Marshall, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 (Operations), First Army. In the ten-day period after St. Mihiel the necessary troop movements were accomplished, but many untried divisions had to be placed in the vanguard of the attacking forces.
On the 20-mile Meuse-Argonne front where the main American attack w to be made, Pershing disposed three corps side by side, each with three divisions in line and one in corps reserve. In the center was the V Corps (from right to left the 79th, 37th, and 91st Divisions with the 32d in reserve), which would strike the decisive blow. On the right was the III Corps (from right to left the 33d, 80th, and 4th Divisions with the 3d in reserve), which would move up the west aide of the Meuse. On the left was the I Corps (from right to left the 35th, 28th, and 77th Divisions with the 92d in reserve), which would advance parallel to the French Fourth Army on its left. Eastward across the Meuse the American front extended in direct line some 60 miles; this sector was held by two French Corps (IV and II Colonial) and the American IV Corps in the St. Mihiel sector. Pershing had available to support his offensive nearly 4000 guns, two-thirds manned by American artillerymen; 190 light French tanks, mostly with American personnel; and some 820 aircraft, 600 of them flown by Americans.
The Meuse-Argonne Offensive falls into three phases. During the initial phase (26 September-3-October) the First Army advanced through most of the southern Meuse-Argonne region, captured enemy strong points, seized the first two German defense lines, and then stalled before the third line. Failure of tank support, a difficult supply situation, and the inexperience of American troops all contributed to checking its advance.
In the second phase (4-31 October) the First Army, after the inexperienced divisions had been replaced by veteran units, slowly ground its way through the third German line. The enemy was forced to throw in reserves, drawn from other parts of the front, thus aiding the Allied advances elsewhere. In the face of a stubborn defense, American gains were limited and casualties were severe, especially as a result of the newly devised enemy tactic of attacking frontline troops with airplanes. First Army air unite retaliated with bombing raids which broke up German preparations for counterattacks. By the end of October the enemy had been cleared from the Argonne and First Army troops were through the German main positions. Two notable incidents of this phase of the campaign were the fight of the "Lost Battalion" of the 77th Division (2-7 October), and the feat of Corp. (later Sgt.) Alvin C. York, who single-handedly killed 15 Germans and captured 132 on 8 October.
In mid-October the organization of the Second Army was completed, at Toul in the St. Mihiel sector, to provide means for better control of the lengthening American front and solutions of the diverse tactical problems that it presented. Pershing assumed command of the new army group thus formed.
Before the third and final phase (1-11 November) of the offensive got under way, many of the exhausted divisions of the First Army were replaced, roads were built or repaired, supply was improved, and most Allied units serving with the A.E.F. were withdrawn. On 1 November First Army units began the assault of the now strengthened German fourth line of defense. Penetration was rapid and spectacular. The V Corps in the center advanced about six miles the first day, compelling the German units west of the Meuse to withdraw hurriedly. On 4 November the III Corps forced a crossing of the Meuse and advanced northeast toward Montmédy. Elements of the V Corps occupied the heights opposite Sedan on 7 November, thus finally accomplishing the First Army's chief mission-denial of the Sedan- Mézières railroad to the Germans. Marshal Foch, at this juncture, shifted the First Army left boundary eastward so that the French Fourth Army might capture Sedan, which had fallen to the Prussians in 1870. American units were closing up along the Mouse and, east of the river, were advancing toward Montmédy, Briny, and Metz, when hostilities ended on 11 November.
General Pershing authorized the results of the Meuse-Argonne Campaign, the greatest battle in American history up to that time, in his Final Report: "Between September 26 and November 11, 22 American and 4 French divisions, on the front extending from southeast of Verdun to the Argonne Forest, had engaged and decisively beaten 47 different German divisions, representing 25 percent of the enemy's entire divisional strength on the western front.
The First Army suffered a loss of about 117,000 in killed and wounded. It captured 26,000 prisoners, 847 cannon, 3,000 machineguns, and large quantities of material." More than 1,200,000 Americans had taken part in the 47-day campaign. Hide
The Carolinas Campaign was the final campaign in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. In January 1865, Union Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman advanced north from Savannah, Georgia, through
... More the Carolinas, with the intention of linking up with Union forces in Virginia. The defeat of Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's army at the Battle of Bentonville in March, and its surrender in April, represented the loss of the final major army of the Confederacy. Hide
Popularly known as the Siege of Petersburg, it was not a classic military siege, nor was it strictly limited to actions against Petersburg. The campaign was nine months of trench warfare. Lee finally
... Moreyielded to the overwhelming pressure, in April 186 Hide
The Battle of Olustee or Battle of Ocean Pond was fought in Baker County, Florida on February 20, 1864, during the American Civil War. It was the only major battle fought in Florida during the war. ... More />
Union General Truman Seymour had landed troops at Jacksonville, aiming chiefly to disrupt Confederate food-supply. Meeting little resistance, he proceeded towards the state capital Tallahassee, against orders, assuming that he would face only the small Florida militia. But the Confederates in Charleston had sent reinforcements under General Alfred H. Colquitt, and the two armies collided at Ocean Pond, where the Union was repulsed. The fighting was so fierce that the Northern authorities placed a lower priority on defending their Florida enclaves.
A stunning Confederate victory, the Battle of Olustee was the largest Civil War battle fought in Florida. Hide
The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as the First Battle of Manassas (name used by Confederate forces), was fought on July 21, 1861, near Manassas, Virginia. The first major land battle of the Ame
... Morerican Civil War. Result: Confederate Victory Hide
The Battle of Groton Heights (also known as the Battle of Fort Griswold, and occasionally called the Fort Griswold massacre) was a battle of the American Revolutionary War fought on September 6, 1781
... Morebetween a small Connecticut militia force led by Lieutenant Colonel William Ledyard and the more numerous British forces led by Brigadier General Benedict Arnold and Lieutenant Colonel Edmund Eyre.
Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton ordered Arnold to raid the port of New London, Connecticut in an unsuccessful attempt to divert General George Washington from marching against Lord Cornwallis's army in Virginia. The raid was a success, but the Connecticut militia stubbornly resisted British attempts to capture Fort Griswold across the Thames River in Groton, Connecticut. New London was burned along with several ships, but many more ships escaped upriver.
Several leaders of the attacking British force were killed or seriously wounded, but the British eventually breached the fort. As the British entered the fort the Americans surrendered, but the British continued firing and killed many of the defenders. However, the high number of British casualties in the overall expedition against Groton and New London led to criticism of Arnold by some of his superiors. The battle was the last major military encounter of the war in the northern United States, preceding and being overshadowed by the decisive Franco-American Siege of Yorktown about six weeks later. At the battle of Yorktown, the Marquis de Lafayette reportedly yelled, "Remember Fort Griswold!" as American and French forces stormed the redoubts. Hide
The Battle of Rhode Island (also known as the Battle of Quaker Hill and the Battle of Newport) took place on August 29, 1778. Continental Army and militia forces under the command of General John Sull
... Moreivan had been besieging the British forces in Newport, Rhode Island, which is situated on Aquidneck Island, but they had finally abandoned their siege and were withdrawing to the northern part of the island. The British forces then sortied, supported by recently arrived Royal Navy ships, and they attacked the retreating Americans. The battle ended inconclusively, but the Continental forces withdrew to the mainland and left Aquidneck Island in British hands.
The battle was the first attempt at cooperation between French and American forces following France's entry into the war as an American ally. Operations against Newport were planned in conjunction with a French fleet and troops, but they were frustrated in part by difficult relations between the commanders, as well as by a storm that damaged both French and British fleets shortly before joint operations were to begin.
The battle was also notable for the participation of the 1st Rhode Island Regiment under the command of Colonel Christopher Greene, which consisted of Africans, American Indians, and white colonists. Hide
British over-a11 strategy in 1777 had two major objectives: (1) to split New England from the rest of the American states by a drive from Canada down the Hudson to Albany that would link up with anoth
... Moreer British force advancing north from New York City; and (2) to seize Philadelphia, seat of the Revolutionary government. The campaign in upper New York began in June 1777 with a two-pronged British drive from Canada. Maj. Gen. John Burgoyne's force of about 7,500, accompanied by some 400 Indians, pushed down Lake Champlain and compelled 2,500 Continentals and militia under Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair to evacuate Ticonderoga on 27 June. Other American forces in the area under the over-all command of General Schuyler retired southward, but were able to slow the progress of the heavily laden British in the rugged terrain. The other prong of the British invading force consisted of some 700 regulars and Tories, and a band of 1,000 Indians, under command of Col. Barry St. Leger. This force moved east from Fort Oswego on Lake Ontario into the Mohawk Valley with the objective of joining with Burgoyne at Albany. Leger laid siege to Fort Stanwix guarding the head of the Mohawk Valley on 2 August, but had to give up his campaign in mid-August when a relief force of 950 Continentals under Arnold scattered his Indian allies by means of a clever ruse. Meanwhile, Burgoyne continued his advance toward Albany, although his force was further weakened by the near annihilation on 17 August of a foraging detachment dispatched to capture stores at Bennington, Vt., protected by 2,600 militia under Brig. Gen. John Stark. On 13 - 14 September Burgoyne crossed the Hudson at Saratoga (now Schuylerville, N.Y.) and faced an American force of about 7,000 under Maj. Gen. Horatio Gates, who on 19 August had replaced General Schuyler as over-all commander of the northern army. On 19 September, Burgoyne, determined to reach Albany by winter, moved to attack Bemis Heights, where Gates' force barred the route southward in strongly entrenched positions. A major engagement occurred at Freeman's Farm, just forward of the main positions. The Americans yielded the field but inflicted twice as many casualties (600) as they suffered and held on to the Heights. For more than two weeks Burgoyne remained inactive while Maj. Gen. Sir Henry Clinton, now commanding troops in New York City, made an ineffectual effort to send relief forces up the Hudson. Finally, on 7 October, Burgoyne ventured out of his lines toward the American left with 1,650 troops and was repulsed in a sharp fight known as the Battle of Bemis Heights. On 9 October he retired to a position near Saratoga, where he was soon virtually surrounded by an American force now grown to nearly 10,000 men. Here on 17 October Burgoyne surrendered his entire army of about 5,000 men and large military stores. Hide
After the British evacuation of Boston, Washington immediately moved his army, less the militia, to New York, in anticipation of a British invasion of that strategically important city. During July an
... Mored August 1776, General Howe, supported by a British fleet under his brother, Adm. Lord Richard Howe, landed an army of 32,000 British and Hessian regulars unopposed on Staten Island. But by late August Washington had assembled a force of over 20,000 virtually untrained Continentals and militia, and built a system of defenses on and around Manhattan Island. About half of these Colonial troops were disposed in fortifications on Brooklyn Heights and forward positions at the western end of Long Island under command of Maj. Gen. Israel Putnam. From 22 - 25 August General Howe landed about 20,000 men on Long Island and, in the evening of the 26th, directed a wide flanking movement around the American left, commanded by Maj. Gen. John Sullivan. On the morning of the 27th Howe fell upon the rear of Sullivan's forces and, despite a valiant defense by the Continentals on the right under Brig. Gen. William Alexander (Lord Stirling), the whole American front crumpled. Remnants of the forward American forces fled back to entrenchments on Brooklyn Heights and two nights later were evacuated to Manhattan in a skillful withdrawal unobserved by the British. Estimates place American losses at 300-400 killed and wounded and 700-1,200 taken prisoners. General Howe listed his losses as 367. Hide